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How to Finish 
California 






Red wo 



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California Redwood 
Association 

Call BuilJins: 

San Francisco 



— ■■■■ 



Copyright 1917 
California Redwood Association 



CALIFORNI A 

Redwood is a Perfect Surface to 
Paint, Enamel or Stain 

Mature made Redwood a perfect sur- 
face to stain, paint, or enamel. 

It is free from pitch or resin, and 
there is no trouble with raised grain. 

Redwood is porous and absorbs 
paint readily. Paint does not have to 
be forced into Redwood by use of 
excessive quantities of turpentine. 
Redwood has a cellular structure of 
large capacity which in thoroughly 
dry Redwood furnishes a penetra- 
tion, giving paint or enamel a firm 
hold on the wood as well as taking a 
sufficient quantity to give a thorough 
covering and an even distribution. 

Painting is a simple process. It 
consists of three agencies — 

( i ) A vehicle to secure penetra- 
tion (usually turpentine). 

(2) An oil to hold the color, 
and form a protective film 
on the surface. 

(3) The pigment or color itself. 

Good paint will last until the oil film 
wears out and permits the finely 
ground particles of pigment to fall 
away as dust. The heavier the coat 
of oil and the deeper the penetration 
the better the job — Redwood's por- 
osity or absorbing power is therefore 
a perfect surface to paint, enamel, or 
stain. 

To insure best results Red- 
wood should be thoroughly dry 
when painted, enameled, or 
stained. Unless absolutely nec- 
essary it should not be painted 
on a rainy day — the wood ab- 
sorbs moisture from the air, 
which partially fills the pores 
that should be filled with paint. 

If specific instructions given in 
this booklet for painting, enameling, 
or staining of Redwood are carefully 
followed, a novice can paint Red- 
wood in a thoroughly satisfactory 
and serviceable manner. 



REDWOOD 

3 



CALIFORNIA 

How to Stain Redwood 

Redwood possesses a beauty in grain 
and texture that makes it highly 
prized for interior trim. Redwood 
should not be covered with paint any 
more than mahogany or oak. 

Redwood has a rich, warm, soft, 
reddish-brown color, and sanded and 
waxed in the natural it produces a 
charming and "homey" effect. 

In order to preserve the individu- 
ality of Redwood in its beauty of fig- 
ure and texture the California Red- 
wood Association has developed a 
line of stains by which Redwood can 
be shaded to any color desired. These 
are permanent effects, economical in 
cost and exceedingly simple in prop- 
er application. 

This stain is not sold, but the 
formulae are given so that any in- 
terior decorator or painter can suc- 
cessfully apply them if the instruc- 
tions given are carefully and intelli- 

ently followed. 

We give in this booklet formulae 
for 1 8 shades, and if any special col- 
or or shade is desired the Associa- 
tion's expert will work out a formu- 
la if a sample of the color is submit- 
ted. 

Sample 7S[o. i Iron Gray 

(Inferior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve l J /i ounces Reduced Iron (iron by hy- 
drogen) in 21 ounces of glacial acetic acid for 4 
days. 

Then add to above 107 ounces water. 
Filter, and stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes 1 gal. and 3 pts„ 
covers 250 sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart ^ 

White lead in oil 2 pounds I mix 

Dry Silex I J4 pounds f first 

Drop Black in oil 1 ounce J 

Turpentine 1 pint ~| add 

Benzine 1 quart L in 

Litharge l A pound J order 

Strain through cheese cloth and apply. 

Sample T^o. 2 Russian Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 

Dissolve ]4 pound Stannous Chloride in y 3 gal- 
lon of hot water — for Solution "A." 

Dissolve % pound Reduced Iron in x /i ga llon 
Glacial Acetic acid for 4 days — for solution "B." 

To 16 ounces of Solution "A" add 16 ounces 
of solution "B. M 

Filter, and stain is ready. 



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RESISTS FIRE 

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SECOND COAT— (Makes 1 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil . 

White Lead in oil 

Dry Silex 

Vandyke Brown in oil 

Chrome Yellow (light) in oil 
American Vermilion in oil. . . 

Aluminum Powder . , 

Turpentine ......... 

Benzine 

Litharge 

Strain through cheese cloth 

Sample 7S[o. 3 



l / 2 gals., covers 250 



1 quart 
8 pounds 
Z l / 2 pounds 
1 ounce 

% ounce 

Y$ ounce 
4 ounces ^ 

1 quart "1 

2 quarts > 



mix 
first 



add 
in 



% pound J order 
and apply. 



Pearl Gray 



(Interior Finish) 



FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve 1 ounce of Reduced Iron (iron by 
hydrogen) in l / 2 pint of Glacial Acetic Acid for 
four days. Take 6 ounces of above solution, add 
120 ounces water. 

Filter, and stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes V/ 2 gals., covers 250 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 

Zinc in oil 1 

White Lead in oil 8 

Dry Silex 3 

Chrome Green (light) in oil 



quart 

pound 

pounds 

pounds 
% ounce 



mix 

first 



Chrome Yellow (light) in oil % ounce 

Turpentine 1 quart ^1 add 

Benzine 2 quarts V in 

Litharge % pound J order 



Sample Jsjp. 4 



Mauve Gray 



(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft 

Dissolve 4 ounces Gallic Acid, 4 ounces Nut- 
gall, 4 ounces Permanganate in 1 gal. water, 

SECOND COAT— (Makes l}4 gals., covers 250 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart ^ 

White Lead 8 T 4 pounds mix 

Dry Silex 1 y 2 pounds f first 

Vermilion (American in oil) % ounce J 

Turpentine 1 quart 1 add 

Benzine 1 l A quarts > in 

Litharge % pound J order 



Sample 7S[o. 5 



Peacoc\ Blue 



(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. ft.) 
Dissolve 4 ounces Gallic Acid, 4 ounces Nut- 
gall, 4 ounces Permanganate in 1 gal. water. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes l}/ 2 gals., covers 250 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart 

Dry Silex 3 pounds 

White Lead 4J^ pounds 

Ultramarine Blue in oil .... 10 ounces 

Raw Umber in oil % pound 

Chrome Green (deep) 1 pound 

Aluminum Powder l A pound 

Turpentine \y 2 quarts 

Benzine 1 V 2 quarts 

Litharge % pound 



mix 
first 




Sample 7s[o. 6 Medium Brown 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. ft.) 
Dissolve 4 ounces Gallic Acid, 4 ounces Nut- 
gall, 4 ounces Permanganate in 1 gal. water. 



DEFIES 



ROT 



5 



CALIFORNIA 



SECOND COAT— (Makes 1*4 gals., covers 200 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 

Dry Silex . .... 4 

American Vermilion in oil . -6 

Burnt Sienna in oil 1 

Aluminum Powder l A pound 

Rose Lake in oil V 2 pound 

Turpentine ...... Ij4 quarts | add 

Benzine 1 quart 5- in 

Litharge , . Ya pound J order 



quart 
pounds 
ounces 
pound 



mix 

Y first 



Sample >{o. 7 Dar\ Seal Brown 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve 6 ounces Reduced Iron (iron by hy- 
drogen) in 4 ounces Glacial Acetic Acid 4 days. 
Take 3 ounces of above solution, add 120 
ounces water. Filter, and stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes \]/ A gals., covers 250 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart 

Dry Silex 4 pounds 

American Vermilion in oil . . 6 ounces 

Burnt Sienna in oil .1 pound 

Rose Lake in oil Y* pound 

Aluminum Powder l /i pound 

Turpentine 1 $£ quarts 

Benzine 1 quart 

Litharge % pound 



mix 




Old Rose 



Sample 7s(o. 8 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. ft.) 

Dissolve 2 ounces of Nutgall (powdered) in 
Ya gal. hot water — Solution "A." 

Dissolve 2 ozs. Tannic Acid (powdered) in % 
gal. hot water — Solution "B." 

Dissolve 4 ounces Logwood Extract in % gal- 
lon hot water — Solution "C." 

Dissolve 1 oz. Gallic Acid in % gal. hot water 
—Solution "D." 

Mix well 4 ozs. Solution "A," 4 ozs. Solution 
"B," 8 ozs. Solution "C," 2 ozs. Solution "D." 

Add 1 oz. of Powdered Alum. Filter, and stain 
is ready. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. 
ft.) 



Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart 

Dry Silex . 1 yi pounds 

Indian Red in oil Ya pound 

White lead in oil 2 pounds 

Vermilion (American) Yl ounce 

Aluminum Powder 1 Y% ounces 

Turpentine 1 quart 

Benzine . 1 quart 

Litharge J4 pound 



mix 
first 




Sample JSjp. 9 



Pea Green 



(Interior Finish) 



FIRST COAT — (Makes l gai.. covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve 4 ozs. Gallic Acid, 4 ozs. Nutgall, 4 
ozs. Permanganate in 1 gal. water. 



SECOND COAT— (Makes \Yz 
sq. ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 

Dry Silex 3 

Chrome Green (light) in oil 14 

Aluminum Powder 6 

Chrome Yellow (light) 4 

White Lead 2 

Turpentine . . . 1 
Benzine . 2 



gals., covers 250 



Litharge 



quart 

pounds 

ounces 

ounces 

ounces 

pounds 

quart 

quarts 



> 



mix 
first 



J4 pound 




RESISTS FIRE 



6 



REDWOOD 



— ^^™ 



Sample J\[o. 10 Light Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve 4 ozs. Gallic Acid, 4 ozs. Nutgall, 4 
ozs. Permanganate in 1 gal. water. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. 
ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart 

Zinc in oil 1 pound I mix 

White Lead in oil 8 pounds r first 

Dry Silex 3 poundsj 

Turpentine . 1 quart ^ a< jd 

Benzine . i y 2 quarts L m 

Litharge J4 pound J order 

Sample 7\{o. 1 1 T^atural 

(Interior Finish) 

Sandpaper the wood. Give 3 coats Wax, well 
rubbed in. 

Sample 7s[o. 12 Antique Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve J4 lb. Stannous Chloride in l / 2 gal, of 
water for Solution "A." 

Dissolve %, lb. Reduced Iron (iron by hydro- 
gen) in y 2 gal. Glacial Acetic Acid 4 days, for 
Solution "B." 

To 16 ozs. of Solution "A" add 16 ounces So- 
lution "B." Filter, and stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT— (Makes 1 gaL, covers 250 sq. 
ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil . . 1 quart "^ 

Dry Silex 1 pound Mix 

Green Seal Zinc in oil 9J4 pounds >- well 

White Lead, in oil (Carters) 3 pounds first 
Chrome Green in oil ....... % ounce 

Turpentine 1 quart 

Benzine 1 quart y Jia 

Litharge or Sugar of Lead . . Ya pound J ad(1 

Strain with cheese cloth. 

SampleT^o. 1 3 MediumDove Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq.ft.) 
Dissolve Y\ lb. Stannous Chloride in l / 2 gal. of 
water for Solution "A." 

Dissolve l /x lb. Iron (iron by hydrogen) in ' _■ 
gal. of Glacial Acetic Acid 4 days. Solution "B." 
To 16 ozs. of Solution "A" add 16 ozs. Solu- 
tion **B.' Filter, and the stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT: 

Raw Linseed Oil 1 quart 

Dry Silex 1 pound 

Green Seal Zinc 9 l /i pounds 

White Lead (in oil), Carters 3 pounds 

Naples Yellow in oil 1 ounce 

Vermilion Orange in oil .... 1 ounce 

Turpentine 1 quart 

Benzine 1 quart , « d 

Litharge or Sugar of Lead . . Y\ pound J 

Strain with cheese cloth. 



> 



Mix 
well 




then 



Sample T^o. 14 Light Silver Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. ft.) 
Dissolve Ya lh. Stannous Chloride in Y2 gal- 
water for Solution "A." 

Dissolve J4 lb. Reduced Iron (iron by hydro- 
gen) in Y 2 gal. of Glacial Acetic Acid 4 days 
for Solution "B," 



DEFIES ROT 

7 



CALIFORNIA 



To 6 o uiion "A add 16 oat Nolu 

an« cjdy. 

OND COAT Make 1 gal , cover* 250 aq 

It.) 

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REDWOOD 



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Sample 7s[o. 18 Cold Steel Gray 

(Interior Finish) 

FIRST COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 200 sq. ft.) 
Dissolve iy$ ozs. Reduced Iron (iron by hydro- 
gen) in 21 ozs. Glacial Acetic Acid 4 days, then 
add 107 ozs. water. 

Filter, and stain is ready. 

SECOND COAT — (Makes 1 gal., covers 250 sq. 

ft.) 

Raw Linseed Oil .1 quart 

Green Seal Zinc in oil 1 pound 

White Lead (Carters) .... .8 pounds mix 

Dry Silex 3 pounds f W cll 

Chrome Green (light) in oil *4 ounce 
Chrome Yellow (light) in oil % ounce 

Turpentine 1 quart ""1 then 

Benzine 2 quarts > ^^ 

Litharge or Sugar of Lead . . l A pound J 

Strain with cheese cloth. 

Directions for Using Acid 

Stains 

I. The wood should be thoroughly 
sand-papered to remove all soil or 
grease marks. Also dust well be- 
fore the first stain is applied. Grease 
marks that do not respond to sand- 
paper can be removed with ben- 
zine. Don't sandpaper across the 
grain — rub with the grain. 
The first coat should be applied 
evenly and carefully with a full 
brush, allowing the wood to satis- 
fy its appetite by absorption. Should 
there be a hard streak in the wood 
it will show lighter than the rest 
of the piece. Treat this with sand- 
paper, dipping sand-paper in the 
first coat solution and sand-paper 
the place and apply more stain with 
brush. Repeat until a uniform cov- 
erage is secured. 

3. The first coat should dry two days 
if the weather is warm and sun- 
shiny. If rainy or moist, do not 
apply the second coat until the en- 
tire surface is uniformly clear and 
dry; that is, not spotted with damp 

places. 

4. Before applying the second coat 
sand-paper lightly with No. o sand- 
paper. Remove the dust and apply 
the second coat with a brush. In 
applying the second coat work your 
surface to be covered in sections 
of about 10 square feet. When the 
second coat is put on it will remain 
for a little while with a bright wet 
appearance, while the wood is ab- 
sorbing the stain. As soon as this 
wet appearance has faded into a 
flat dull effect, or loses its shine, 
the second coat should be rubbed 
with cheese cloth first across the 
grain, which fills the wood, and 



DEFIES ROT 

9 



CALIFORNIA 



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REDWOOD 



Pure spirits of turpentine (not turps, 

or near turpentine). 
Pure benzine (not distillate or coal 

oil). 
Dry silex, finely ground (not dry 

ochre). 
Colors ground in oil to obtain the 

color desired. 
White lead ground in oil (not dry 

lead). 
Zinc, ground in oil (not dry zinc). 
Aluminum dry powder. 
Drier — Either % pound of litharge to 

the gallon, or ^ pint Japan drier. 

How to Mix Second Coat Properly 

i. Add the oil. ] Mix these 

2. White lead or zinc. > ingredients 

3. Dry silex. J thoroughly, 

4. Then add the aluminum (if speci- 
fied). 

5. Add the turpentine. 

6. Add the colors ground in oil (as 
specified). 

7. Add the benzine. 

8. Add the drier. 

Mix well and strain through a fine 
weave cheese cloth. 

Oil Stains 

Oil stains are used very successfully 
on Redwood, but do not give the 
range of artistic color possibilities 
that are procurable through the me- 
dium of acid stain. The oil stain has 
a tendency to darken the wood, and 
this applies particularly to the ends 
of a piece, such as a mantel - top 
where the ends show. 
Formula : 

Boiled Linseed Oil 5 Gals. 

Turpentine • • I Gal. 

Color ground in oil to suit the 

shade or tone required. 
Silex (finely ground) 3 Lbs. 

Litharge or sugar of lead for a 

dryer. 

(Covers 250 square feet.) 

The wood should be carefully sand- 
papered and wiped free of dust be- 
fore the stain is applied. It should be 
applied freely and rubbed well into 
the pores to give a clear and even 

coverage. 
Wipe with clean cheesecloth. When 

the first coat is dry it should be sand- 
papered lightly and then finished 
with a coat of wax, shellac, or var- 
ni sh . 



DEFIES ROT 






i A 



R E D W O O D 

Enameling Redwood 




Priming is the foundation 
which the whole superstructure of 
enamel will either make good or fail, 
therefore one should thoroughly un- 
derstand its principles and take the 
utmost care to make the application 
in a good workmanlike manner. 

A little color should he added to 
each coat, according to the d< th of 
finished tone, as this insures a more 

ati > factory job- 

The priming, or foundation coat, 

is the only oi in which lins 1 nil 

>hould he 11 1. The priming coat 

should have ample time to dry; it 

may 1 1 dry and m hard under 

the touch of the finger, but this is 

not always an indh tion it is thor- 
oughly dry. No I than a week 
should be allowed for drying, and 
tv weeks would be better. Linseed 

oil absorbs o n from the atmos- 
phere for about to da> nd during 
that period it is und going han 

ill both form and hull- it in 

about lO I cut, and it is nut to he 

considered dry until thi hang 

tal ^ plac mother coi m top oi 

the priming coat before it is thor- 
oughly dry shuts out ace 3 to tin 

air and ai the drying pro< 

The priming 1 jhould h< 11 
sandpapered. This done, the worl 
should h< wed l>\ appli ttioi 

which are best known as flat or lead 

md allow 4 da drying 

Formula for priming coat for the 

interior : 

Whit I ^l 100 Lbv 

I ! Lin I Oil . Gals. 

Turpentine l ' - OaK 

Lithai ugar of kail 

(< ire fe< 

I white It I putt] Mak thi 
mixing or kn< lin^ 50 per cent of 
raw hi d oil and putty with 50 per 
cent oi white 1 d ( 12 ir I I). 

This mak a putty that will sand- 
paper nicel won't shrink or harden, 
and dv\ tUling th mpleteh 

DEFIES ROT 

13 



K 1 1 K O K N 1 A 



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REDWOOD 




Priming or First Coat 

The priming or first coat should be 
mixed thin and with sufficient oil to 
satisfy the absorbing power of the 
wood, and only enough pigment to 
provide a foundation. 
Formula : 

White Lead .100 Lbs. 

Raw Linseed Oil 7 Gals. 

Turpentine Vi GaL 

Litharge Drier H to M Lb. 

(Covers 300 square feet.) 

(Note: Use Litharge only in damp 
weather. Drier should not be used 
in hot weather.) 

(Note: White lead varies in brands 
— the older the lead the more oil it 
will absorb. Formulae given in this 
book are based on 12-year lead.) 

ge should be well mixed 
with turpentine before adding it to 

the paint. 

If Japan drier is desired use one 
gill of good Japan drier instead of 
the litharge stated above. When 
Japan drier is used the paint should 
be stirred frequently to keep it in 
proper solution. 

The priming coat must have from 
5 to 7 days to dry, and not less than 
12 days in case the surface is ex- 
posed to rains or dampness. 

Never use yellow ochre for prim- 
ing — it dries too hard, has no elas- 
ticity and the second coat cannot ad- 
here properly. Fifty per cent im- 
ported French silica ochre, ground 
in oil, can be used with safety — the 
other 50 per cent being white lead. 
Under no condition use white ochre 
on surfaced or planed material. Im- 
ported French silica ochre is perma- 
nent in color and extremely durable 
in wearing qualities. It is also very 
useful and valuable in mixing or 
tinting pigment. On rough barns, 
fence's, etc., it has no equal ; both yel- 
low and white ochre can be used on 
rough surfaces. 

Second Coat 

After all nail holes, etc., axe well 
puttied with pure linseed oil putty 
(not glazier's putty) the work is 

DEFIES ROT 

15 



CALIFORNIA 



ready for the second coat. This coat 
should be colored the shade the work 
is to be when completed. 

Formula: 

White Lead 100 Lbs. 

Raw Linseed Oil 5 Gals, 

Turpentine 1 Gal. 

Color ground in oil, 

(Covers 250 square feet.) 

The same amount of drier and 
time to dry should be given this coat 
as the priming coat. 

This second coat should be well 
brushed out — the brushing excludes 
the air and allows the paint to dry 
hard and uniform. Much trouble 
with paint can be traced to improper 
application of the second coat. 

Third Coat 

The third coat, in addition to being 
the finishing coat, must withstand 
the elements — heat, cold, humidity, 
rain or snow, salt air on the sea 
coast, etc., and it should be mixed 
accordingly. Consideration should 
also be given in mixing the third 
coat as to whether the exposure is 
north, east, south, or west. The wear- 
ing power of paint is always poorest 
on the southern exposure, where it 
is subjected longest to the rays of 
the sun. In some sections paint will 
last only one-quarter as long on a 
southern exposure as it will on the 
north side. 

The following formula should be 
used where there is a hot climate and 
on southern or sun exposures : 

White Lead . , ,100 Lbs. 

Raw Linsed Oil 3^to4Gals. 

Turpentine y 2 Gal. 

(Covers 250 square feet.) 

For northern exposure add an ad- 
ditional y 2 gallon of turpentine. 

The following formula should be 
used along the sea coast or where 
salt air is encountered: 

White Lead 75 Lbs. 

Pure French Green Seal Zinc, 

ground in oil. 25 lbs. 

Raw Linseed Oil 3 J / 2 to 4 Gals. 

Turpentine l / 2 Gal 

(Covers 250 square feet.) 



REDWOOD 

16